Many parents automatically think that because the weather turns colder, head lice somehow isn’t as big of a concern. What are the risks with colder weather? Is head lice still a problem I should be worried about? Short Answer: YES!
Facts About Winter Weather and Head Lice
Fact #1 – No, head lice do not die off in the cold like many other types of bugs. Why? Lice are human parasites. As long as the humans they inhabit are warm and supplying food and shelter lice care very little about the temperature outside.
Fact #2 – Colder weather does have an impact on head lice, but not in the way you may think. It affects the way that head lice are spread. Summer camp, back to school, and spring break are all major times we see a spike in the spread of head lice. Believe it or not, winter breaks fall in the same category. Children may not be rolling around in a sandbox together outside or bumping heads playing soccer, but they are spending time with family or friends in closer confined areas doing various activities through the winter months indoors. Spreading of head lice can happen just as easily as other times.
Fact #3 – What are some of the biggest risks? Vacations spent at cousin’s houses or visiting overnight with friends are a huge risk. Make sure to pack your own pillows, blankets and towels to help prevent spreading infection. Also, wash bedding as soon as your little one returns home to be extra cautious.
Fact #4 – Winter clothing is also a major problem. Hats, gloves, scarves, hoodies and beanies are all a source for spreading lice or nits during the winter. Have you ever walked into your child’s karate, gymnastics or ballet class and noticed a huge pile of winter coats and accessories shoved by the door? Kids don’t think about keeping their belongings away from others. Teach them to hang up their stuff and keep it away from the pile up of potentially head lice infested clothing of their teammates. Do not share winter gear and teach your children to do the same.
Fact #5 – Kids at school can also pass on head lice through personal belongings. Take your child’s backpack, winter coat, gloves and hats and throw them in the dryer for 20 minutes each week. This will help keep them lice and nit free.
Fact #6 – Keep up with head lice checks on your children to make sure they aren’t showing symptoms of head lice. The most common things to look for are nits, yellow eggs at the base of the scalp. They will be the size of the head of a pin, very small and difficult to detect. They will not flake off as dandruff would, but are stuck to the hair follicle with a glue like substance. Red sores, blotchy rashes or itching may also be signs of a problem. Remember that adult lice are difficult to spot as they avoid direct light and will burrow into the scalp to avoid being detected.
Contact Lice Clinics of America with any further questions, concerns or for advice about winter cases of head lice! Our expertise can give you the peace of mind you deserve.
February fills the air with love. Valentine’s Day is a fun opportunity to give those we love that extra special attention to fill their hearts! As parents, it is our job to protect those loved ones from lice and other common sicknesses that are around this time of year. We thought of a few quick tips to help you spread the love this Valentine’s Day and prevent head lice while you’re at it!
Spreading the Love to Your Family
Make Personalized Valentine’s – Take a piece of cardstock or construction paper and artistically print or draw each person in your family’s name on their own paper. Now using color markers or pens have each member of the family write a loving note to one another. List their good qualities or things you appreciate about them. Now roll up the paper, attach their favorite candy with a ribbon and tie it off with a bow.
Fill Their Buckets – “Filling a Bucket” for someone is an analogy often used to demonstrate how they feel about themselves. If someone’s feeling unhelpful, unimportant or like they have little to offer to others it is as if their bucket is empty. They don’t feel needed and loved. Parents and family members can do a lot in “filling the buckets” of those in their family. Notice the good your family members do and then acknowledge it! Don’t miss an opportunity to give a compliment, praise a good deed or point out moments that make you feel proud of them. Go the extra mile and only focus on the positive. In other words, try not to “empty their bucket” with negativity. Leaving kind notes, text messages or just bite your tongue when you feel like placing blame or pointing out a flaw.
Family Time is Worth It – Schedule a day and time each week that is sacred family time. Treat this like an important appointment that cannot be missed or rescheduled. With this time create a pattern to go over weekly schedules, play games, watch family movies, address important topics and create fun, happy memories as a family.
Nix Screen Time at Meals – When it comes time for family dinner, unplug your devices and focus on what really matters. Talk to each other about the day. Listen to the highs and lows everyone experienced. Mealtime is a great time to interact as a family and be involved in each other’s lives.
Preventing Head Lice on Your Loved Ones
Spread Awareness – Make sure your children understand that head lice is a common problem in public schools, daycares, or any type of facilities and activities where children are together in a group. Talk to them about making sure to avoid head to head contact or sharing headwear and clothing as much as possible. If they are going somewhere overnight provide them with their own clean pillow, blankets, and towels. Throw their winter gear and backpacks into the dryer once a week for 20 minutes to kill any possible nits or lurking lice.
Take Time to Check for Lice – Routine head checks on your children are an important step in catching head lice at the early stages. Take a small comb and sift through their hair for traces of bites, rashes, irritations or nits at the base of the scalp. As you do this regularly you will begin to notice what is normal and become aware of any warning signs as they may arise. This is a great way to catch the problem early and eliminate it quickly before spreading to your whole household.
Around the world lice are becoming less treatable with over the counter shampoos that people have used for decades. Lice have developed immunities to these products that are making it more difficult to get them under control once a home or family has been infested. Dr. Dale Clayton, a professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Utah, learned this fact the hard way. His school age children encountered lice and after trying various treatments they were also unsuccessful in eliminating the problem. Luckily for them, Dr. Clayton’s scientific interests have included the biology of birds and the feather lice that live out their life span on the birds. During his analysis of these birds and their lice, Dr. Clayton moved his science lab from the humid climate of Oxford University in England to the arid, desert region of Utah. As a result, he noticed a drastic reduction in the amount of lice that would stay alive on his captive birds of study. After consulting with various other scientists he determined that the desiccation of the lice in Utah was counteracted by using steam that was pumped into the lab to create a more humid environment. With positive results for his feather lice he was once again able to study the lice as they were much more likely to survive.
This information started to make him curious about more effective treatment possibilities for head lice on human patients. If a machine was developed that could eliminate humidity near the scalp, could the head lice and their eggs be dehydrated and therefore killed? He spent years with this theory trying various methods that involved chemicals to dry them out, heat caps fitted to the head, rice bags, and many variations of blowers that were tested on several subjects that had contracted lice.
The tests affirmed that head lice can not be killed with regular hair dryers, as the hair just mats and protects the lice and eggs from dying. Also, the normal hair dryer was not hot enough to kill the lice without causing injury to the scalp. A new device was invented that uses hot air that moves quickly enough at the exact angle of use to dehydrate lice and eggs when used for the appropriate amount of time. The AirAllé® device was born.
In 2006, the Pediatrics journal released data supporting the studies of the AirAllé device validating its effectiveness in killing head lice and their eggs. It was than that the product began to be placed on the market for public use. Today, many Lice Clinics of America are serving their customers using this ingenious invention at over a 99% rate of effectiveness. During the 30-minute treatment, a lice professional carefully moves the applicator tip underneath the hair and against the scalp. The heated air at a fast flow is a highly effective way to dehydrate the lice and eggs and leave the head lice free.
Contact your local Lice Clinic of America for any additional information on how the AirAllé can help cure the headache of head lice you may be dealing with.
For years it has been believed that rats were the main cause of the rapid spreading of the virus known as Yersinia pestis during the Black Plague Pandemic that would take millions of lives through the course of history in medieval Europe and Asia. Not until recently have scientists began to question this. One reason for the new intrigue is the realization that during these time frames there is no evidence of mass amounts of rats or rodents dying as well as humans. In addition, scientists are questioning the mass, rapid spread of the virus and the evidence of rats ability at creating such hysteria proves to fall short. In other words, it seems to have moved to quickly and wiped out too many people for it to have been only a rat problem.
Lice and fleas are now the topic of research.
Lice and fleas are human parasites, meaning they live, feed and breed off of human life. The massive pandemic of the Black Plague that swept through Europe killed presumably up to half the population. Spreading of an illness that quickly and devastatingly could have been the work of such parasites, especially considering the close quarters and unsanitary living conditions of the times.
The outbreaks occurred from the 1300’s to the early 1800’s, during a time when sewage, sanitation and personal hygiene were often not conducive to health and happiness. Families that lived in such close proximity with each other, friends, neighbors and other members of their flea and lice infested communities could reasonably, and very recklessly pass on parasitic carriers of the virus unknowingly.
What was the Black Death Plague?
An infected louse or flea could bite a person, spreading the illness into their bloodstream where it collected in the lymph nodes and symptoms started to fester. Under the armpits and groin areas were the usual places where lymph nodes would swell, sometimes reaching the size of a baseball or large apple. Fevers, chills, nausea, headache and delusions were all symptoms of the Black Plague. However, the term was coined by the large, swollen sores that would appear black under the skin and ooze painful black pus. At times there were people that caught the illness so quickly they would go to bed seemingly healthy, wake up at night with the fever, and not make it to the morning. Others with symptoms would live up to five days and die a painful, slower death. However, the mortality rate was devastating to populations during that time. At times killing up to two thirds of the known population. Whole cities and towns were wiped out by the illness and those who had not yet caught it would flee the area in hopes of preventing the devastation upon their own families. There were scarcely enough able bodied people to help bury the dead, care for the animal herds and fields, and try to tend to the sick. Archaeologists report that up to 200 bodies were buried in one grave at times.
Why do researchers care how the Black Plague was spread?
Although our health care understanding and hygiene practices have come a long way, believe it or not plagues are still existent in parts of the world. Madagascar suffered an outbreak just last October where over 50 people were killed and some 700 were hospitalized. World health organizations stepped in to stop the breakout, yet in third world countries these types of bacteria are still present and pose a risk. The plagues changed the course of history for all mankind, wiping out millions of the populations, and destroying countries. It is important to understand how it came about and why it was so rampant for the sake of future prosperity.
Texas is among several states who have updated their views on “no nit” policies in public school districts. For decades this policy has put children in embarrassing positions in front of their peers, removed them from the classroom for sometimes weeks at a time, and can be quite tricky to diagnose as nits, lice eggs, are often incredibly difficult to recognize.
Recently the media brought this to light as a fifth grade Florida student was kicked out of school on November 9, 2017 for a case of head lice. Thomas Jefferson Elementary School in Duvall County Florida dismissed Maddie Hunter and then continued to refuse her to re-enter the classroom for over three weeks. Every morning her mother would drop her off at school, have her scalp rechecked for nits, and she would be turned away as one or two nits were discovered.
“I really need help with reading,” Maddie told Fox 30 News. “I’ve been struggling in reading and I can’t do that because of missing so much school.” Her situation not only took her out of the classroom for three weeks but she missed out on drama and choir rehearsals as well.
Maddie’s head had been treated multiple times by several over the counter shampoos, and no live lice were present. “They just said it’s a school board policy,” Maddie’s mother recounted to Fox 30 News. “Their hands are tied, they can’t do anything.”
Which bids the question? Is this indeed the best way to handle a case of head lice? If you ask the Texas Department of State Health Services it is not. Their website states, “According to Texas law your child will be sent home from school if live lice are found in their hair. However, they won’t be sent home, if only nits are found. The law also states that your child is allowed to return to school after one medicated shampoo or lotion treatment has been given. When your child returns to school, a head check is not required by law and there is no requirement to report head lice cases to officials.”
However, individual Texas school districts still have the ultimate power to decide. State officials make it clear, “Each school district can make their rules tougher if they choose. And many do. Talk to the school nurse or someone else in charge, to find out what your child’s school rules are.”
As Texas districts exam the facts it would be helpful to note that both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Association of School Nurses advocate that “no-nit” policies should be reevaluated and changed. They agree head lice is a social issue not a health threat. “No nit” policies place an unequal amount of emphasis on head lice management than on real health concerns which should be higher priority. Research shows that the cost of sending nurses through entire school systems to do individual head lice checks is not an effective tool in fighting off infection. Students who miss too much school due to nits are also missing out on valuable learning time when the nits in their hair, which may already be hatched and are really empty shells, pose little or no risk to other students.
Head lice checks are offered through Lice Clinics of America. Diagnosis is often the most difficult part of catching the problem early on. Experts at our clinics can help you understand the warning signs and symptoms of head lice.
Every little girl dreams of beautiful braids, precious pigtails and gorgeous curls. But did you realize that when you style your little ones hair up into a cute hairdo you are actually helping to protect her against head lice? It makes sense if you think about it. If hair is up and out of the way it is much less likely to brush up against someone else with lice, or have a nit or louse attach to it. Here are some of our favorite quick, fun styles that will make your little beauty the talk of the town.
Favorite #1 – Fishtail Braid
Step 1 – Pull hair back into a low ponytail with a plastic elastic.
Step 2 – Divide ponytail into two even sections.
Step 3 – Separate a half inch section of hair from the left side of the ponytail.
Step 4 – Pull this piece of hair across the top of the left side ponytail and into the right side of the ponytail. Make sure not to twist the hair but pull it smoothly over.
Step 5 – Now separate a half inch section of hair from the right side of the ponytail.
Step 6 – Pull this piece of hair across the top of the right side ponytail and into the left side of the ponytail.
Step 7 – Continue to repeat steps 3-6 until you get to the end of length of hair.
Step 8 – Secure end with a band. Using your fingers, loosen up braid and pull on pieces of it to make it loose and even.
Step 9 – Cut out the plastic elastic from step 1 and let hair fall into place.
Fish Tail Braid
Favorite #2 – Messy Bun
Step 1 – Pull hair up into a high ponytail, or two high pigtails.
Step 2 – Take the ponytail and twist it tightly in one direction so it is in a nice, tight twist.
Step 3 – Wrap the twisted ponytail all the way around the base of the ponytail, creating a nice, close bun. Secure it into place with an elastic.
Step 4 – Next, take a comb and tease hair, tighten elastic and even bobby pin strands into place to create desired look. Spray with hairspray to keep in place.
Step 5 – Add a bow(s) to make it extra cute for your little girl.
Favorite #3 – Twisted Ponytail
Step 1 – Pull hair up into a high ponytail.
Step 2 – Dampen ponytail and divide into two even parts. Moisten each part with hair gel or mousse to prevent flyaways.
Step 3 – Take both strands of hair and twist tightly to the right until all the hair is twisted to the ends.
Step 4 – Now take both twisted strands and twist them together to the LEFT…the opposite direction.
Step 5 – Secure with an elastic and hair spray to keep it tight. Tie ends with a cute ribbon if desired.
With a new year, comes a clean slate. A chance to start implementing things into our lives we wish we had done before. With that in mind, this is the perfect time to start thinking of ways to help your children learn healthy habits. Here are some traits to start and some things to stop in helping your kids stay healthy and happy in 2018.
Stopforcing children, threatening children or even bribing children to eat their fruits and vegetables. This is not a good long term approach to helping them learn to like it. When they are adults you will not be there to force feed them.
Start ensuring your children are learning to enjoy fruits and vegetables. Take a step back and rethink your approach to healthy eating. Use butter and flavorings on their dinner vegetables to help with the blandness. Set out a veggie tray with hummus and ranch for dipping when they arrive home famished from school every day. They want a dessert? Sure, why not!? Offer a fresh fruit platter with caramel dipping sauce or cool whip. This tip might be hard for you to swallow, but will sure make fresh fruits and veggies more enjoyable for your kids. They will learn to love them and enjoy them in a variety of ways.
Stop thinking your kids won’t catch lice.Believing only dirty people or poverty-stricken people catch lice is just an outright lie. Lice are non-discriminatory and survive off of people from all walks of life. In fact, everyone is likely to catch lice at least once in their lifetime. All social classes, ethnicities, genders and races are at risk. Especially now as super lice are creating more of a problem than ever.
Starttalking to your children about ways to prevent lice. Explain that direct head to head contact is the most common way to catch lice. Followed by sharing head gear or clothing that has remnants of lice or nits, lice eggs, on them. Teach children to avoid sharing hair brushes, hair accessories or hair combs with other people. Help them understand that lice is a normal part of life and not something that makes people dirty or bad. Help your child know that it can happen to anyone and they should be aware to avoid it. Watch for signs and symptoms of lice in your child including: an itchy scalp, red and irritated scalp, or nits close to the scalp.
Stop pestering your child to wash their hands. The more you yell or bug them about something the less likely they are to do it and do it well. Washing hands is such an important step in staying healthy try to not make it a negative experience by being pushy or nagging. Startmaking sure they understand why we wash our hands with a fun experiment. One word – glitter! Take your child by the hand and get it slightly damp. Explain that germs are like glitter. They spread easily and stick to their hands. Sprinkle some glitter to represent all the activities they do throughout the day like petting the cat, touching the doorknob, or flushing a toilet. Show how if they touch their nose or face germs spread to their body and can potentially get inside through the eyes, nose or mouth to infect them. Now wash their hands with warm water and soap. Time it to see how long it takes. This is the correct amount of time they should use to wash their hands. Making it fun and explaining the concept will go a long way in ensuring kids are doing what we ask for the right reasons.
It’s 2017 and that means toys have come a long way since the Magic 8 Ball and Rubik’s Cube. With the technology that our children have to play with their toys are a whole new level of fun! We have searched high and low to find the best interactive toys for the children on your good list this holiday season.
Bring Home the Best for Boys
-furReal Roarin’ Tyler, the Playful Tiger. Hasbro has created a tiger that plays with your child by responding to touch, reacting to voice commands and even chases his own squeaky toy! This playful tiger is sure to win the devotion of your little one as they pet him and he purrs and closes his eyes. He loves to play rowdy as well with over 100 different sound and motion combinations, he actually responds to your child’s touch and movement.
-Lego Boost Code Builds. Legos that move! Building Legos has been a popular pastime for generations. Now with new technology children can build one of five different robot models and actually use code to make it dance, move, talk, sing and even tell jokes! Their very own robot is controlled by a downloadable app on any mobile device or tablet. Not only does this new level of Lego help your child grasp how to work with technology but it will get them excited about learning!
-VRSE Virtual Reality Sets. Technology in these reality sets brings the excitement of the big screen into your living room. Kids can strap on a reality set and suddenly they’ve entered a whole new world! With 360 degree panoramic views of movie scenes and settings from Batman or Jurassic World they can experience heart pounding excitement firsthand. Ever been chased by a T-Rex or battled alongside Batman? Now they can with this latest technology!
Top Tech Trends for Girls
-Game Smart Watch for Kids. Finding stylish, functional smart watches for kids has never been possible, until now. With touchscreens 1.5 inches in size these smart watches provide hours of up to date entertainment with built-in games and learning features. Designed for capturing photos as well there are several options that allow kids to change up the camera with special effects. They can use their very own smartwatch to set an alarm, keep track of time, play games and video special events.
-Luvabella Doll. This lovely, life-like baby doll interacts with the little girl in your life almost like a real baby! She can be fed, burped and changed to name just a few features. She comes with several extras like feeding materials and a change of clothes. The more you play with her, the more she learns. Teach her to make sounds, say words and respond to movements! She will quickly become the love of your little girl’s life.
-Hatchimals. When your child receives a hatchimal it will arrive in a sparkly, beautiful egg. As they tap the egg, listen for a response! Hold it up to their ear and listen for a new heartbeat! They help their egg hatch and care for the precious new friend once it has arrived. Their new hatchimal interacts with them and can sing songs, learn games and play for hours.
When white flakes or specks are found on a head of hair it can be difficult to decipher what you are dealing with. Head lice may be the initial fear that runs through your mind. Rightfully so, as head lice is a highly contagious parasite that is passed through head to head contact onto roughly 6-12 million children per year in the United States. Before you jump to the head lice conclusion, let us examine the differences between a head lice infestation and a common case of dandruff.
What to Look For:
Dandruff is an actual piece of dead, flaky skin. White in color, dandruff falls off in clumps and can linger on shoulders, necks or the back of its sufferer. It is clearly visible to the human eye, usually to the trepidation of those that carry it.
Head lice are insects that feed off of human blood. They are nocturnal creatures so lice are much more active at night. Because they avoid direct light they can be extremely difficult to spot. When searching through hair strands for evidence of lice look specifically for any brown insects smaller than a sesame seed. If you do happen to find a louse or two it is clear you have a problem. Be aware, just because you don’t see a louse doesn’t mean you don’t have lice. Nits, or lice eggs, are the most common visible symptom of lice. Yellow in color, eggs are laid at the very base of the scalp. They are stuck to hair strands with a tacky substance that makes them much more difficult to remove than a flake of dandruff. Using a fine tooth comb to sift through hair is one recommended approach. The CDC also suggests the use of a small magnifying glass to help you inspect the scalp for red irritation or live lice.
Dandruff is usually no more than itchiness, dry skin, and flakes. A severe case can sometimes be the result of a worse condition such as eczema or psoriasis. If you are experiencing large painful patches of dry skin that have a cracked, blotchy rash consult a dermatologist or healthcare professional. Normal dandruff is the result of overactive skin reproduction. As a normal person loses skin cells they are reproduced every four weeks. Dandruff sufferers can have skin cells that are regenerating four times that fast. This creates mounds of dead, dry skin that fall off much more often than normal leaving traces all over hair strands and clothing. Dandruff can also be caused by excessive use of hair products. Thoroughly clean and rinse hair to ensure that you are not dealing with product residue.
Head Lice will typically start causing symptoms three to four weeks after the initial contact. Lice eggs need ten to fourteen days to hatch and start living on the scalp. Traces of fecal matter and saliva from adult lice can cause skin reactions such as swelling and itching. Red bumps on the skin can also be an indication of bite marks. Eggs that are attached to hair strands about ¼ of an inch from the base of the head specify that lice eggs have already hatched. They will be white in color and easily peeled off. As more lice hatch they will obviously be easier to spot on the scalp as their numbers grow. Activity will increase at night, making it more difficult to sleep. Itchiness and irritation can be enough to interrupt sleep.
Dandruff is easily treated with over the counter medicated shampoos. Nearly half of adults will experience dandruff at some point in their life. It is a common problem that you can usually get a handle on after a few weeks of consistent treatment. Conditioning the scalp to provide moisture is also recommended. Protect your head from the elements with proper coats and headgear.
Head Lice is most easily eliminated using the newest Airelle heat technology. One short visit to the Lice Clinics of America will have you on your way to being lice free. We also sell over the counter products that can be effective and used in your home. Depending on your budget and time needs, our trained personnel will walk you through the best options for your specific situation.
Parents who have experienced a lice outbreak in their homes know, lice definitely have an impact on your child’s sleep. Lice are considered nocturnal creatures. They live off of human blood. During the evening hours they become active, crawling around the scalp of their victim searching for places to burrow, lay eggs and eat. Their saliva, fecal matter, and biting creates irritation and itching on the scalp. Imagine the sensation of insects crawling on your head, piercing your scalp and making a home on your head. Not the most sleep provoking scenario, to say the least. After your family is treated and lice free, here are some simple suggestions to getting back into a healthy bedtime pattern.
Pick an appropriate bedtime and stick to it. The National Sleep Foundation puts out guidelines for sleep required by age. Infants 0-2 years of age need the most sleep with a full 12 hours every night and at least a 2-hour nap during the day. Children 3-6 years also need a full 12 hours of sleep at night, without the daytime nap. When children reach ages 7-12 it is recommended they get 10-11 hours of sleep per night. Teenagers between the ages of 13-18 are still growing and developing, which means they still need at least 8 hours of sleep every night. Choose a bedtime that will help children get the recommended allotment of sleep for their age. Start your daily bedtime routine with plenty of time before they should be asleep. This helps to avoid feelings of scurrying around creating anxiety to meet the bedtime deadline. Avoid late nights that interrupt the pattern and try to keep the schedule as consistent as possible.
Bathe every night to create a routine. A warm, relaxing bath goes a long way in helping children unwind and start to feel ready for sleep. Bubbles with scented soap or bath oils are a good idea to create a serene environment. Some scents promote feelings of relaxation and sleepiness. These include jasmine, vanilla, lavender and anything else that brings you comfort or makes you feel at home. Continue to prepare for bedtime by keeping an established routine. Brush your child’s teeth, comb their hair or perform any other bedtime preparation in the same order every night.
Let your child have a comforting object for night time use. Every child has a beloved stuffed animal or a favorite blanket that warms their heart and provides them solace. Allow them to snuggle up at bedtime with their object of choice as a reward for keeping up their routine.
Play soft music, sing a soothing song, or read a book together. Even older children enjoy reading with their parents. With so many wonderful books to choose from, make it a habit to read together every night. Once in awhile tell children a story from your childhood or make up fun stories together. Unwinding with a quiet lullaby, a sweet story or some peaceful music can help to put their minds at ease and get them in the mood to sleep soundly.
Spend one on one time, even if for a few moments. Taking a few minutes each night to talk to your child is a powerful tool. Offer an uplifting compliment, pay attention to something that may be worrying them, or tell them something encouraging you noticed they accomplished that day. Children crave positive attention. As parents, it’s your job to give it to them. These moments of loving attention will help children of all ages to feel wanted, needed and loved. They will rest easier knowing they are cared for and have a responsible adult watching over them.